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What Are The Advantages Of Laser Welding?

Laser welding is a state-of-the-art process for joining materials using a laser source. Lasers started with gas lasers such as CO2 and have evolved over time. Gas lasers operate in continuous mode and are usually high power.

Later comes solid-state lasers such as Nd: YAG, which can operate in both pulse and continuous modes. More recently, fiber optic lasers have been developed to enable high-power welding in either pulsed or continuous modes with a greater range of flexibility. You can also look for the best laser simulation software via online.

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There are certain defects that can arise that impact the strength and uniformity of the weld. Some common defects that are seen are lack of fusion, porosity, and spatter. 

These defects can arise due to instabilities in the melt pool which can be a function of material properties and processing parameters. Lack of fusion usually occurs when there is not enough heat transferred into the joint and a uniform bond is not accomplished. This can lead to brittleness, cracking, and the presence of voids.

Porosity forms as a result of a series of voids that propagate from instabilities in the melt pool. This is a typical defect in keyhole welding, where the laser beam penetrates deep into the material and forms a large opening where heat and vapor collect and continue to sustain the opening. 

Porosity may occur when cold zones form at the top of the keyhole and there is momentary keyhole collapse, entraining air in the melt pool, which is then captured by the solidification front.